The Global Tobacco Atlas website
provides a broad international view of shisha smoking and also looks at the usage of water pipe by women in Middle Eastern countries.
The Truth Initiative:
Inspiring Tobacco-Free Lives website provides information on the increasing use of shisha among high school and middle school students in the USA. Despite not being specific to Australia, the website debunks myths about shisha smoking, which is relevant to populations worldwide.
The World Health Organisation
provides a historical context for the use of shisha worldwide, as well as detailed information on the impact of shisha smoking on health. Guidelines for Governments, Ministries of Health and communities are outlined for how to manage shisha tobacco smoking.
The American Lung Association
provides further information to readers on the health risks of shisha smoking and outlines why shisha use requires greater public attention. Policy recommendations are also provided, although specific to the USA, they may also be relevant to other countries worldwide.
The American Cancer Society
provides information on why shisha smoking is not a safe alternative to cigarettes.
The European Society of Cardiology
website outlines why all forms of smoking, including shisha smoking, are bad for heart health.
Tobacco and waterpipe use among university students in Saudi Arabia: impact of tobacco sales ban
(Daradka H, Khabour O, Alzoubi K, Nakkash R, & Eissenberg T, 2019)
The prevalence and trends of waterpipe tobacco smoking: A systematic review
(Jawad M, Charide R, Waziry R, Darzi A, Ballout RA, & Akl EA, 2018)
The allure of the waterpipe: a narrative review of factors affecting the epidemic rise in waterpipe smoking among young persons globally
(Akl EA, Ward KD, Bteddini D, Khaliel R, Alexander AC, Lotfi T, Alaouie H, & Afifi RA, 2015)
A review of the health effects of smoking shisha
(Kadhum M, Sweidan A, Jaffery AE, Al-Saadi A, & Madden B, 2015)
Waterpipe tobacco smoking: health effects, research needs and recommended actions for regulators
(WHO study group on Tobacco Product Regulation, 2005)